Solar Electricity-How this guide useful for readers?
This guidet is provided with the details of solar electricity. This guide is typically read such as anyhow a person reads a book. In general terms, each guide that people follow is based on a book. The only main difference of is that this guide consists of hypertext links which make it easier to navigate. The said hyperlinks are also designed in order to make everything as less complex as possible in terms of structures.
Mainly, it has two major sections, which are categorized as Principles and Applications. There is a contents page that holds all the links to the sub-sections. The links are derived from the most certain areas of the principles section as well as the most important and useful applications. Therefore, you can freely browse through the start page until the end. This systematic guide will provide you access to the principles as well as the application contents pages while using the provided graphics that are seen on top of every page.
You can go back to the start page simply by clicking on the graphic “solar electricity” at the top of this page.
It is a common fact that the sun is the major source of energy in the whole universe. As a matter of fact, it has been producing the Earth the needed solar energy for all times. Solar energy has been taken advantaged by people since the ancient times. In addition, the development of industrial technology has helped us possess a solid understanding the value of solar energy’s discovery.
How much solar energy is there?
According to reports, the Earth is able to receive 174 petawatts (PW) of insulation on its upper atmosphere. However, there is about 30% of that amount that bounces back to the space and all the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans as well as land masses which raises its temperature. The warm air that has evaporated water from the Earth’s oceans increases. Therefore, atmospheric circulation or convection happens that produces wind, cyclones and even anti-cyclones.
On the other hand, the temperature is lower when the air gets to a high altitude. This happens when water vapors condense to the clouds in a matter of rain to Earth. This process is needed in order to complete a water cycle. The process of photosynthesis converts the energy from the sun to chemical energy. It is responsible in producing food and wood. In addition, it is also able to produce biomass that originates fossil fuels. The sunlight that is absorbed by the oceans as well as land masses are capable of stabilizing an average temperature of 14 °C. Thus, it is clearly indicated that the solar energy coming from the sun gives life to Earth. It can support the entire energy needs of humanity for millions of decades.
History of Photovoltaics
1839. Edmond Becquerel was the first to describe photovoltaic (PV) effect. He found out that there are specific materials that can produce small quantities of electric current when they are exposed to the light.
1940s and early 1950s. There were major steps taken to commercialize PV. This happened when the Czochralski process was enhanced to produce pure crystalline silicon.
1954. There were several scientists at the Bell Laboratories who have depended on the Czochralski process so that they can innovate the first crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell. It had a 4% of efficiency.
1958. The space satellite for the United States Vanguard has carried a few PV cells array in order to power the radio. Those cells did work well that the PV technology became a part of the space program since then.
1870s. The said effect was initially studied by Heinrich Hertz in solids, such as selenium. After a while, the selenium PV cells were then designed in order to convert light to electricity with 1% to 2% efficiency. That is the main reason why it was immediately accepted in various fields of photography for light-measuring devices uses.
There have been many attempts made to use silicon cells in commercial products. As a matter of fact, it was considered as the new space program which is responsible in providing the technology its very first major application. Today, solar cells are responsible to power all satellites virtually. This also includes those that are designed to aid in defense, communications, as well as many scientific researches.
There are several advantages of PV technology that is why people rely on it all the time for solar energy. Below are just a few of those advantages.
The solar electricity is grid-connected which are generally used locally. Therefore, it is able to reduce any losses both on transmission and distribution losses.
When the first Capital was spent for building solar power plants, the overall costs were very low as compared to the already existing power technologies.
The solar electric generation is known to displace the highest cost of electricity on peak time’s demand especially in climatic regions. It also reduces loading grids. It eliminates local battery power needs during darkness and high local demands. This is being encouraged by net metering. Time-of-use net metering is most appropriate to small photovoltaic systems.
It is superior economically especially when the fuel transport is more difficult, more expensive and sometimes impossible. The best examples are island communities, ocean vessels, satellites, as well as remote locations.
The solar energy facilities are able to continue their operations even with low maintenance or intervention after each initial setup.
Many environmentalists prefer solar energy because it does not produce pollution while being uses. The end wastes as well as emissions that are used in production are very manageable that the existing pollution controls can take care of.
In any angle, the energy that reach the surface of the Earth us about six thousand times more than having an average power of 15 terawatts that is usually used by humans. Moreover, its generation contains the highest power density among all other renewable energies. Currently, it has been noted to have 170 W/m² of global mean.
>> Principles of solar energy
> Know about semiconductor physics
# Band structure and Doping
# Light absorption by a semiconductor for power generation
> How do solar cells work?
>>Applications of solar energy